THIS WAS WRITTEN IN THE 1950'S & IS ONE OF THE CAUSES OF THE CURRENT CLIMATE CRISIS
"All things live and grow because of their ability to generate enough heat to charge their bodies with their normal voltage, and no more. Each living body has a normal temperature and pulsation frequency which must be constant in order to live and grow. Death begins with the slightest upset of that normalcy. Even one degree of extra heat beyond 98.6 will upset the entire metabolism of man. That one degree of fever is one fifth of his way to death. That is equally true of everything.
Our planet already has one degree of fever*, caused by radioactivity. That one degree has already upset the earth's metabolism enough to cause many fishes in the seas to migrate into colder waters. It is causing ice caps and glaciers to melt. Ten more degrees of radioactive fever will make of this planet a barren waste."
*To understand this in context of what's happening today in terms of climate change,keep in mind this little known fact that the
sphere of the sun is covered in ice and that conventional climate science is not based on the reality of how our cosmos actually works. This has
created quite a conundrum of confusion when addressing these issues and more importantly, finding and putting into action solutions that really work.
Walter & Lao Russell, Atomic Suicide?
*Above Image: Nuclear Bomb Nearly Detonated After Falling on North Carolina – Declassified Report: "In a scenario that could’ve been extremely devastating, the United States narrowly averted a nuclear disaster in 1961 when an atomic bomb nearly detonated after falling out of a B-52 bomber that broke up in the sky.
According to the Washington Post, the incident took place on January 21, 1961 – less than 20 years after nuclear bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki – and is explained further in a recently declassified report published by the National Security Archives." (source)
NUCLEAR ENERGY & ARMAMENT - WE STAND AT A VITAL CROSSROADS & TIME IS OF THE ESSENCE
*By Uphill Flow Wave Writer
In light of many ongoing developments regarding the use of nuclear energy (see following article links), it's crucial that we make every effort to understand the cause & effect results of our actions. And when it comes to nuclear power, these effects are dangerously multiplied due to the intensely harmful toxicity of forcing such violent and unnatural reactions. It is truly amazing that we have made it this far - thanks to Divine Intervention - as the precarious nature of these nuclear processes are insanely risky.
NUCLEAR ARMS RACE FIRED UP AGAIN - ARE WE ON THE BRINK OF WAR OR ALREADY IN ONE?
"Faced with this dire threat to peace, we are not helpless. We must not resign, we must not surrender."
- Mikhail Gorbachev, Former President of the Soviet Union
PLANS FOR MORE NUCLEAR REACTOR POWER PLANTS
The following tweet by President Donald Trump, in addition to similar comments made at other times, has caused quite a stir and many have falsely assumed that this is a promotion for nuclear war.
So it's extremely important to clarify that President Donald Trump does not desire war or the use of nuclear weapons and he would surely support disarmament if other nations could be trusted to do the same - hence the last part of his statement which speaks directly to this. He has a very clear understanding of the devastation of nuclear power and truly hopes that others will reach the same conclusion - and sooner than later. He has walked into quite a situation as President during this turbulent time.
Please understand that this has nothing to do with partisan politics, and everything to do with saving the planet from absolute devastation, or worse complete annihilation. Certain things like this can and should take precedent over all of that anyway. Here is a paragraph taken from a Time article that addresses this. You can read it here and watch the video in which Trump shares his feelings on nuclear weapons and war:
Trump said nuclear capability was the “single biggest problem” facing the world in a wide-ranging interview with the New York Times in March. Asked whether the U.S. should be the first to launch a nuke during a confrontation with an enemy, Trump said that should be the “absolute last step.” “Power of weaponry today is beyond anything ever thought of, or even, you know, it’s unthinkable, the power,” he said.
“It’s a very scary nuclear world,” he added. “Biggest problem, to me, in the world, is nuclear, and proliferation.” -President Donald Trump
This is why it is wise not to react in politically divisive manners when you come across emotionally charged headlines such as this one here:
We all share this planet and the sheer magnitude of nuclear power makes it something that we must come together and take responsibility for because the slightest misdirection could blow us all to smithereens. And that is certainly the case when it comes to nuclear power since it is so beyond cosmic and natural laws that it impacts the entire globe and beyond. You won't find too many resources out there that explain this all clearly as the information - in the interest of "economy", "progress" and "development" has been suppressed and highly distorted.
THE DANGERS OF NUCLEAR POWER CAN NO LONGER FALL ON DEAF EARS ~ WE MUST FINALLY HEAR & ACT
"We will not prematurely or unnecessarily risk the costs of a worldwide nuclear war in which even the fruits of victory would be ashes in our mouth - but neither shall we shrink from that risk any time it must be faced."
"The most alarming of all man's assaults upon the environment is the contamination of air, earth, rivers, and sea with dangerous and even lethal materials. This pollution is for the most part irrecoverable; the chain of evil it initiates not only in the world that must support life but in living tissues is for the most part irreversible. In this now universal contamination of the environment, chemicals are the sinister and little-recognized partners of radiation in changing the very nature of the world-the very nature of its life."
"I definitely feel that the development and use of nuclear weapons should be banned. It cannot be disputed that a full-scale nuclear war would be utterly catastrophic. Hundreds and millions of people would be killed outright by the blast and heat, and by the ionizing radiation produced at the instant of the explosion . . . Even countries not directly hit by bombs would suffer through global fall-outs. All of this leads me to say that the principal objective of all nations must be the total abolition of war."
~Martin Luther King Jr
"We must eliminate all nuclear weapons in order to eliminate the grave risk they pose to our world. This will require persistent efforts by all countries and peoples. A nuclear war would affect everyone, and all have a stake in preventing this nightmare. "
"India can live without nuclear weapons. That's our dream and it should be the dream of the U.S. as well."
“Whoever is planning a nuclear war or seriously thinking about using nuclear weapons must directly be taken to a mental hospital! Mad people are mentally sick and they only need a medical treatment! Every nation has the responsibility to weed their deranged politicians out from their governments!”
~Mehmet Murat ildan
“I dispute the point that nuclear energy is 'clean' and 'cost-effective'. As I recall, when we first harnessed nuclear power it was to drop an atom bomb on a civilian population, not to save the environment. However, you must admit, the victors are never tried for war crimes.”
~E.A. Bucchianeri, Brushstrokes of a Gadfly
“The USA government states that the New Mexico Trinity nuclear bomb site is still highly radioactive and 'harmless'. It is interesting to note in the era of Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity (EHS) that it is USA government policy that radio frequency (RF) and electricity are also 'harmless'.”
Thanks to the tentacles of quantum "science" - powerful lobbyists, and completely dishonest and/or unaware marketing and media campaigns, you have probably heard that atomic energy is safe, cost-effective, environmentally sound, and necessary. None of this is true. Thankfully, one man did gain full and direct knowledge of exactly what atomic energy is and he wrote a powerful life-saving book about it.
It is with great appreciation and love, that we offer you the great work of free-enery visionary and Divine Illuminate Walter Russell and his dear wife Lao. Written back in 1957, what follows is even more applicable today. Here you will come to understand the real nature of atomic energy and why many respected individuals and organizations (suppressed history) have spoken up and voiced strong opposition to all things nuclear. Much of this information has been suppressed. They make several crucial points that we need the decision-makers of our countries to hear loud and clear so if your interested in helping to save the planet, share this information with as many people who have ears to hear as you possibly can.
As children of God, we have the power to counteract these evils - we just have to use it.
Time truly is of the essence.
"Do not think for a moment that planets and suns can not explode. They are continually exploding."
What is Atomic Energy?
In answering this question let it be ever remembered that God is love, and that this universe is founded upon love. Every action and its reaction in Nature must be in balance with each other in order to carry out the purposeful intent of the Creator.
Love expressed by action, means balanced fulfillment of its own law of equal giving and regiving. That is the principle upon which this purposeful universe is founded. That which purposefully fulfills the law is GOOD. It will endure and be eternally repeated with more of that which man calls GOOD. Every action of man, likewise, which is founded upon love is a fulfillment of the law, and is GOOD--and will be eternally repeated.
Our action in answering this momentous question is founded upon love for the good of man. If it is purposeful it will bring GOOD into the world for endless repetition, which is Nature's way of working. If it is not balanced and orderly in Nature's way of normal growth of her Idea, then that moment of its departure from the GOOD will bring about its own dissolution. That is also Nature's way of dissolving that which is unrhythmic and purposeless in the fulfilling of her One Law.
What is atomic energy? What is this great power which is now to be used for the betterment of life?
That is the question which the whole world wants to know. It wants to know because there is great fear in the heart of man that it should not be used, but he does not know why.
The only way he can know WHY radioactivity should not be used is to know WHAT radioactivity
IS--and what it will DO.
We will briefly state what it is and what it can do in one short paragraph. We will then expand this one paragraph into this whole book, for the purpose of giving you full comprehension of its meaning. When you read that one paragraph, which now follows, bear in mind the fact that the supreme effort of humanity is to learn how to live long lives in full strength, and repeat them down through endless centuries.
Radiation is the normal death principle. Every thing in Nature dies normally by slowly radiating its heat. Radioactivity is the explosively quick death principle. Radioactivity is man's discovery of how the human race can die quickly, and not be able to propagate its kind for many long centuries.
There is your complete answer in a few words. MULTIPLIED DEATH is the new boon which this age of man believes he is giving to the furtherance of life.
Naturally you do not understand it, but instinct and intuition in you are strong enough to make you fear it. The reason you do not understand it is because you are not yet aware of what makes things live and what makes them die.
The entire answer to this supreme question lies in knowing exactly WHAT MAKES BODIES LIVE and WHAT MAKES BODIES DIE. This cannot be briefly told. In telling it we must tell you how God constructs and dissolves matter electrically. If answered briefly you would not comprehend it. The greatest minds among men have been trying to discover this life principle for centuries. When we do fully answer it for you and all mankind, you will also fully comprehend your universe and all of its mysteries. The telling must be a step by step process, however, and must keep
in mind the purpose of this book, which is to dynamically explain in convincing language, and undebatable postulates, that the price man will pay for the use of atomic energy is his own inevitable extinction. Nature has a tremendously balanced rhythmic normalcy in her orderly processes of creation. It is all of it good for man and animal alike when they observe that normalcy.
When they defy it, or violate it through ignorance of it, Nature does not punish them for that violation. Ignorance punishes them. The discovery of atomic energy as a means of obtaining greater heat than an orderly and normal way suitable to environment, is as much a breach of Nature's orderly processes as it would be if man violated the law of gravity by discovering that he could get to the bottom of the canyon in a much quicker way than the normal way. No man would do that because he knows better. Atomic energy for industry is as great a violation of Nature's way as a
defiance of gravity would be. And it is as sure death for the violator of one as of the other.
We know that man is not intentionally defying God's law. There is but one other reason why he is doing it, which is that he does not know what he is doing. The law works just as irrevocably, and inevitably, however, against him who defies it, as it does for the one who does not know. Man admittedly does not know what he is doing. For long ages he has sought for the life principle in germ or ultimate unit of matter. He has never found it there and never will. Likewise, he has sought for the principle of death.
This he has now found, but does not know it. Do you know WHY you live and HOW you keep alive? Do you know WHY you die and HOW you die? Do you know "where you go when you die, or what happens to your identity after death?"
No, you do not yet know these things. Mankind has not yet unfolded far enough spiritually, to know of his eternal Identity, or to know that he cannot die. The complete argument of this story is based upon the fact that mankind does
not know what either life' or death is, nor that the plan that he is now making is assisting Nature in her death process by helping you to die instead of to live.
That plan is contrary to Nature's law of love. We shall tell you all you have wondered about regarding life, death and immortality, so that you will comprehend the magnitude of the crime of man against man, which man has now decided to perpetrate.
Man does not yet know his universe, nor how it became, nor how it disappears into space and reappears. There is a universal process in Creation and a motivating force for the energy which creates it. That same process applies as equally to the creation of "life," and its disappearance in "death," in your body as it does to the whole universe. Do you know what that process is? Do you know what your universe is, and God's relation to IT--and to YOU? Do you not think you could live more powerfully and wisely if you did know these things? We feel certain that when statesmen and
leaders in industry know these things they will know they cannot use the death principle to aid life.
Every forthcoming page of this book will deal with the principle of life and death of the body of man, and of God's body--the universe of motion. It will, likewise, deal with the immortality of man and of his Mind-control over his orderly and normal life and death processes. It will also clearly explain that long asked question: "Where do I go when I die?"
During this explanation of the two ways of life and death, which will be clearly set forth herein, you cannot fail to see that man's illegitimate use of DEATH to benefit life will but multiply death upon this planet until not one grass blade will be left upon it. These statements present a dread picture. They seem unbelievable and impossible. It is our responsibility to prove to you that they are not only possible, but inevitable. The only way we can possibly do that is to now make those things known about life, death and immortality, which have never yet been known.
The World Voice to End Nuclear Power (1957 ~ Suppressed History)
*Source: Atomic Suicide?, by Walter & Lao Russell
This chapter is devoted to the world opinion and the world fear of radioactivity. It is not written to support the evidence we have given, but merely to express the world voice. We include it, also, because the world fear does not know what it fears. The effects are known, but the WHY of those effects are not known. That is why we must write the WHY, else the danger will be beyond remedy before the world becomes aware of it. We will cite two reasons for this statement before we quote the press -- and the fears of scientists.
Our first reason is our belief that the greatest danger from the use of radioactivity is defective births and leukemia. That danger will creep upon civilization without any way of detecting it. One cannot go about with instruments to measure genetic damage, as one can do to measure the amount of strontium and other radioactivity, which is falling on the soil from year to year. We believe that sterility will be an accompanying effect, while abnormalities of living bodies will be secondary. It could not be otherwise, for genes are not basic in potency. There is something behind and underneath genes, and that is the seed. No human has ever attempted to explain the seed, therefore, it is permissible for us to say that the principle of rebirth in bodies is not yet known on earth. We know it, however, and because of that we know the danger which has no meaning to those who do not know. This mystery has to do with knowledge of the purpose of inert gases in relation to the seeds of things. We will more fully explain this mystery in Chapter XI.
Right here, however, we can say that every living body refolds into its seed simultaneously with its unfolding from its seed. With radioactivity in general use it will not be many years before the translucent light of the inert gases, especially niton, which we described in relation to the deadly blue-white light radiations from radium, and the still more deadly blue light of uranium, will make seed-regeneration gradually impossible in either animal or vegetable species. This is the danger which will come unannounced. It is the one of which we are most apprehensive, and could cost hundreds of millions of sterile humans and more millions of defective births.
Geneticists have already begun to talk about mutations, for they understand how the seed-pattern can be altered by abnormal environment, but beyond that, to the seed itself, and its manner of refolding a dimensioned material image, such as a hundred ton oak, into a dimensionless, weightless, formless micro-pin-point inert gas recording of itself, they do not know. Nor does anyone know what the blue-white fluorescent light of inert gas from radium or from plutonium,
means to the seed and to sterility. We believe, for instance, that if a reactor plant, such as the Hanford one in Washington, is placed north of New York City, as now planned, it would not be many years before the whole of that vast watershed would have to be abandoned, including many other cities near New York. To us that is as much a certainty as that a two foot high sapling will beten feet high in a few years. It is an orderly mathematical fact of growth. In the processes of Nature it could not be otherwise. One could be forewarned of that danger before it had reached that
extremity, but one cannot be forewarned of the sterility of all organic life until it has affected possibly more than half the population of the whole world in various degrees.
When radium was first used its danger was not known. No one was then forewarned of it. Because of that fact a laboratory worker named Dr. Emil H. Grubbe, was constantly exposed to it until he developed cancer burns. These did not kill him but since then he has had to undergo 90 operations because of them. He still lives at 81, but his isolated case would certainly number millions by 1970 if nuclear fission comes into general use. Does it make you feel comfortable to contemplate that fate for you, and more especially your children?
Dr. Percy Brown, a Boston X-ray specialist, had fifty operations because of various X-ray effects, including cancer. He died in 1950 after 24 years of suffering from those effects.
The well known case of accidental death which came to young Harry K. Daglian, Jr., of New London, is typical, for every known means of protection surrounded him every moment. Yet he died in 25 days because of the bomb test accident at Los Alamos, New Mexico.
Back in those days before radium danger was known, seventeen girls had been employed to paint watch dials with a radium mixed paint. One by one, they all developed strange bone and blood diseases until all of them died. It has been said that such a thing could not happen now because we are forewarned. There would be thousands of cases continually happening where one could not be forewarned, such as the San Francisco case where someone accidentally stepped upon a very small vial of radium and exposed a whole city, which could have been wiped out because of it, had the accident not been accidentally discovered.
Dr. Alfred H. Sturtevant is an eminent geneticist. In 1955 he made the following statement:
"The last bomb test alone probably produced more than 70 human mutations which are likely to produce large numbers of defective children in the future."
Our mental and other institutions for defectives are already overflowing. The tax upon normal humans for the support of these defectives is a great burden. Such an increase in defectives as radioactivity threatens in the near future will make it imperative that all defectives be destroyed at birth. There could be no other way. Think of what our
civilization would be like if it fell to such a low level as that.
Our second reason concerns the misconception of present day beliefs in relation to the ability of matter to absorb other matter. For a specific example, the text books describe lithium as a metal which has great power for absorbing water.
There is no such power in all Nature. Matter does not absorb, nor contract, nor attract. Matter is compressed and
will expand and destroy, but it will not absorb. And in that misconception lies a terrible danger, for what does actually happen is that lithium expands oxygen and destroys it.
And so does sodium, potassium, strontium, calcium and the other silvery white killer metals, which look like silver but which you could crush between your fingers. If lithium and sodium expand oxygen in water, and your body is two thirds water, think of what it would do to your body. Always bear in mind that everything which is dying is expanding, or, conversely, expansion is the basic condition for necessary death.
Sudden expansion causes flame and great beat, for sudden expansion is an electric short-circuit. Another dangerous misconception is evidenced in the commonly used term: ". . . releases an extraordinary amount of energy." Energy is not released.
What actually hap pens is that potential is released, not energy--and that means expansion . Atomic fission helps matter to explode instantly instead of decaying over long periods. "Released energy" means quick expansion, and quick
expansion into the universal vacuum is the death process of any kind of material body, whether it be iron, carbon or a human blood corpuscle. That conception which gives to energy the quality of expanding or contracting, is one of the contributing factors to the deadliness of radioactivity as a power for man's use. Energy is changeless. It is the eternal vacuum of the zero universe--God's universe. To confuse the compressive power of electricity to create potential for the purpose of simulating energy, with energy itself, it extremely unfortunate.
If radioactivity ever came into general use there would be thousands of planes continually discharging ultramicroscopic particles by the billions per square mile. Thousands of ships would do, likewise, and kill every fish in the seas in time. Hundreds of reactor plants would make it impossible for you to eat any untainted food, whatsoever. Such a thing as the normal food you are accustomed to would soon be as impossible for you as it is for the cow, which is now compelled to eat contaminated grass to make into the milk you drink and the beef you eat.
Let us make clearer to you what we mean by the ability of metals like lithium, sodium, calcium or strontium to expand within you and hasten your death. A metal like iron, or gold, cannot hurt you from outside of your body because it will not expand unless you apply an intensely hot acetylene flame to it. Lithium will expand and explode in ordinary room temperature. It cannot be kept in its metallic state unless immersed in oil. If you touch an ordinary match to it a white hot flame quickly consumes it at the cost of a lot of oxygen.
Sodium will burst into flame without a match. Just throw it in water. The resultant flame does not absorb water, it
expands the oxygen in it and sends it back into its cathode zero where all dead things go. It bursts into flame. Flame destroys. It does not absorb. A lesser heat than a flame expands towards death, even though it may not destroy.
In this connection the Atomic Energy Commission issued a report to the effect that the first atomic submarine, the Nautilus, had now been in operation two years without a single illness from radioactive poison taking place. Here is an inference that the atomic submarine has been proved safe. Is it? One year ago the second atomic submarine, the Sea Wolf, was launched. It is now known that its liquid sodium power system cannot be prevented from leakage and has to be removed. If a thousand such ships sailed the seas and each lost even a very little of such poison it would so utterly
change the percentage of sodium in the ocean that no fish could survive it.
We have now given our two main reasons for believing that the humans who are thus dealing with death do not know the deadly nature of these killer metals, nor do they know that their power to kill lies in their power to expand every other atom or cell of matter which they come in contact with.
It is that very power which makes them valuable and necessary in their own environment. Their ability to expand and "kill" granite, basalt, and other rock formations, gives to earth the few feet of decayed soil, atmosphere and water, necessary for organic life.
The following extracts from the National Academy of Sciences are the findings and opinions of 145 leading scientists who met for the purpose of studying this problem, under a financial grant from the Rockefeller Foundation:
"The problems of radiation fall naturally into two main classes: (1) the effects on human beings; (2) the various ways in which radiation can reach human beings through the environment. The inheritance mechanism is by far the most sensitive to radiation of any biological system. Any radiation which reaches the reproductive cells causes mutations (changes in the material governing heredity) that are passed on to succeeding generations. Human gene mutations which produce observable effects are believed to be universally harmful.
Everyone is subjected to the natural background radiation which causes an unavoidable quantity of so-called
spontaneous mutations. Anything that adds radiation to this naturally occurring background rate causes further mutations, and is genetically harmful.
There is no minimum amount of radiation which must be exceeded before mutations occur. Any amount, however small, that reaches the reproductive cells can cause a correspondingly small number of mutations. The more radiation, the more mutations.
The harm is cumulative. The genetic damage done by radiation builds up as the radiation is received, and depends on the total accumulated gonad dose received by people from their own conception to the conception of their last child.
So far as individuals are concerned, not all mutant genes or combinations of mutant genes are equally harmful. A few may cause very serious handicaps, many others may produce much smaller harm, or even no apparent damage.
MAY TAKE GENERATIONS
But from the point of view of the total and eventual damage to the entire population, every mutation causes roughly the same amount of harm. This is because mutant genes can only disappear when the inheritance line in which they are carried dies out. In cases of severe and obvious damage this may happen in the first generation; in other cases it may require hundreds of generations.
Thus, for the general population, and in the long run, a little radiation to a lot of people is as harmful as a lot of radiation to a few, since the total number of mutant genes can be the same in the two cases.
It is difficult to arrive at a figure showing how much genetic harm radiation can do. One measure is the amount of radiation, above the natural background, which would produce as many mutations again as occur spontaneously. It is estimated that this amounts to 30 to 80 Roentgens. [The roentgen is a unit of radiation. To give an idea of its value, the
average dental X ray deliver five roentgens to the patient's jaw, but only five thousandths of a roentgen of stray radiation to more remote parts of the body such as the gonads.]
It is also estimated that a dose of 10 roentgens to every person in the United States would cause something on the order of 5,000,000 mutant genes, which would then be a part of the population's inheritance pool. This figure is subject to considerable uncertainty.
At present the United States population is exposed to radiation from (1) the natural background, (2)medical and dental X rays, (3) fall-out from atomic weapons testing. The 30-year dose to the gonads received by the average person from each of these sources is estimated as follows:
1. Background--about 4.3 roentgens.
2. X rays and fluoroscopy--about 3 roentgens.
3. Weapons tests--if continued at the rate of the past five years would give a probable 30-year dose of about 0.1 roentgens. This figure may be off by a factor of five, that is, the possible range is from 0.02 to 0.5 roentgens. If tests were conducted at the rate of the two most active years (1953 and 1955) the 30-year dose would be about twice as great as that just stated.
At present test explosions of atomic weapons are the only significant source of radiation in the general environment, above the natural background.
Meteorologists have found no evidence that atomic explosions have changed the weather or climate. Nor do they believe that continued weapon tests, at the same rate and in the same areas as in the past, would have such an effect.
Radiation from explosions passes into the atmosphere and much of it eventually returns to the ground as "fall-out."
Fall-out divides into three classes: (1) close-in--material that comes down within a few hundred miles of the explosion and within 10 to 20 hours, (2) intermediate--material that descends in a few weeks after the explosion, (3) delayed--
material that remains in the air for months or years.
Close-in fall-out from test explosions affects only restricted, uninhabited regions. Intermediate fall-out would descend very slowly if it were pulled down only by gravity. It is mostly washed out of the air by rain and snow. It spreads over large parts of the earth, but its effect over a small area may be accentuated if there is heavy precipitation while the radioactive cloud is overhead.
Delayed fall-out is stored for long periods in the stratosphere. Meteorologists know very little about the interchange of air between the stratosphere and lower layers, so they cannot predict exactly how long the material will stay up, or where it is likely to descend."
National Academy of Sciences Genetics Committee states:
"The report of the Genetics Committee of the National Academy of Sciences was unanimous and blunt: "Any radiation is genetically undesirable, since any radiation induces harmful mutations
This complex chemical compound known as a gene cannot repair itself, and to date we know of no
way of repairing it.
The injured gene will handicap some descendant, even though it may skip many generations before it does so. It may cause physical and mental handicaps to a whole line, and it will keep trying until at last it kills off the line.
Thus, the geneticists say cold-bloodedly, from the standpoint of the human race it would be better to have a few thousand humans severely radiated than to have whole populations subjected to minor radiations.
If, as medical evidence overwhelmingly shows, man-made radiation is not good for healthy human beings, the logical questions are: Where and how might you be exposed? What can you do to protect yourself and your family?
You could be exposed through:
1. Ordinary medical X rays;
2. Eating food, drinking water or milk or breathing air that has been contaminated by fall-out from the explosion of atomic weapons tested by the United States, England and Russia;
3. Food or water contaminated by radioactive wastes from an atomic installation; . . ."
Dr. W. F. Libby says:
"Last May 2, Dr. W. F. Libby, Commissioner, United States Atomic Energy Commission, presented to the National Academy of Sciences what is probably the most authoritative public report to date on "Radioactive Strontium Fall-out."
Samples of radioactive strontium, Dr. Libby said, were detected in the snow at Admiral Byrd Bay in the Antarctic; in the waters of the Danube, the Mississippi, the Seine and the Moselle Rivers; in alfalfa in the fields of Wisconsin and Iowa, and in soil in various sections of the country.
Dr. Libby concluded his report by observing that the average content of radioactive strontium is increasing in milk supplies all over the world, and therefore more and more human beings are putting more and more radioactive strontium into their bodies.
Since growing children concentrate calcium, they are likely to absorb more of this dangerous relative of calcium into their bones than adults. And any material incorporated into their bodies during childhood will have a longer time to act."
An atomic laboratory worker dies from atomic rays:
"Philadelphia VP--Exposure to atomic radiation in a government laboratory between 8 and 10 years ago has taken the life of a Philadelphia physician, the city medical examiner said. Medical Examiner Joseph W. Spelman issued his finding after an inquest into the death last July 24 of Dr. Kenneth A. Koerber, 50, of Philadelphia. Dr. Koerber had worked in the Atomic Energy Commission's Brookhaven National Laboratories, Upton, N. Y., between 1946 and 1948. He inspected laboratories to protect workers from radiation.
"We presume," Dr. Spelman said, that Dr. Koerber somehow got a dose of atomic radiation which now, 10 years later, caused his death. We have conclusively proved that he was subject to atomic radiation or to the inhalation or to the eating of atomic compounds. At the present time his bones contain 1,000 times the maximum safe concentration of radiation."
We quote from James Poling, in Better Homes and Gardens, May, 1957. The following is far from comforting, if not alarming.
"An H-bomb explosion at our Bikini test site, March 1st, 1954, blew a scientific concept, as well as an island, into smithereens. Fallout had previously been regarded as a hazard confined to the immediate vicinity of an atomic explosion. But a recording instrument at Rongelap, 100 miles to the east of Bikini, revealed that this bomb had sprayed alarming quantities of radioactive dust over that atoll. And we learned for the first time that fallout from a multi-megaton bomb was lethal over an area of several thousand square miles. Now we know the naked horror of the bomb. It poses as a potential threat to all mankind."
The Miami Herald prints the following:
DETROIT ATOM PLANT CALLED DANGEROUS
"Washington--In a memo suppressed by Atomic Energy Chairman Lewis Strauss, atomic scientists have warned sternly that the "fast breeder" power reactor he approved for construction outside Detroit may "risk the health and safety of the public."
Last November, a similar but smaller experimental reactor at Arco, Idaho, melted down into a hot radioactive heap that couldn't be touched for six months. Puzzled scientists still haven't found the cause.
Yet Strauss, ignoring the urgent advice of his own safety experts, okayed construction of the same design atomic power plant in Detroit's populous back yard."
The eminent scientist authority upon radioactivity, Dr. Ralph Lapp, upholds our contention that the upper stratosphere will not send in its full bill for our payment until the late seventies. There is no question but what the stratosphere is accumulating death rays for destruction of earth's oxygen at an increasing rate. The freely expressed belief that "the pull of gravity" will bring the fall-out to earth is costly to human survival. A small percentage of the higher potential goes toward earth, but the larger percentage is of a potential which is lighter than the earth pressures. These seek the upper levels and the stratosphere. It is possible that enough has already collected to take toll of millions of lives, or cause millions of defective births, even if we stopped the use of radioactivity now.
We print Dr. Lapp's warning in full, as issued by The Daily Oklahoman of July 5, 1956--and other papers:
SCIENTIST SAYS H-TESTS NEAR DANGER LEVEL
"Washington, July 4 (INS)--A leading U. S. scientist warned Wednesday that the world may already have passed the point of safety in testing hydrogen-bomb weapons."
Dr. Ralph Lapp, citing evidence that the U. S. has exploded four H-bombs in the Pacific this year,said the world is a lot closer to the maximum safe level of radioactivity than was indicated in a recent report by the National Academy of Sciences.
"Lapp said the NAS report, issued June 13, was "misleading" when it indicated that the testing of nuclear weapons could be increased 25 to 30 times above the 1950-55 average without endangering the world's health.
THERE'S SECOND ANGLE
"He said in an interview that the NAS limit was based only on "external" radiation. He declared the safe maximum is far lower for "internal ingestion" of radioactive particles carried into the human system by air, food and water.
"The point I would emphasize," the atomic scientist said, "is that all of us already have measurable quantities of this bomb-generated radioactive material in our system.
"Although the quantities are not as yet dangerous in the cases where measurements have been taken, we now have enough information to determine definitely when the maximum safe level of radioactivity will be reached."
FOURTH BLAST HINTED
"Lapp, who has repeatedly disclosed information about the dangers of radiation which were later verified by the atomic energy commission said he believes that three super-bombs probably equal to about 10 million tons of TNT each had been set off in the current Pacific test series before Tuesday.
"The Japanese central meteorological station announced evidence of a fourth super-explosion described as "possibly" an H-bomb Tuesday morning. If the total for the series is equal to 40 million tons of TNT, this would double the average annual rate for tests conducted from 1950 through 1955.
"Lapp's warning concerned the effects of radioactive strontium, an element created when uranium atoms split. The element is chemically similar to calcium and tends to cause cancer and other ailments by concentrating in the human
"Making the much more conservative assumption that test rates would slowly accelerate and would double by 1970," he said, "I concluded that by 1962 there will be enough radioactive strontium committed to the stratosphere to produce a 100 percent 'maximum permissible amount' in every person on the planet.
"Because of a hold-up of the invisible particles in the upper air--the particles fall to earth at a rate of about 10 percent a year--this radioactive strontium would not show up in full amount in the human body until the late 1970s.
"However, by 1962 the die would have been cast irrevocably."
Instead of a slow acceleration, Lapp said, "the upward arc of bomb testing is proceeding out of control." With Russia, the U. S. and Britain conducting H-bomb experiments, he declared, the total exploded by 1960 could exceed the equivalent of one billion tons of TNT.
BATTLE NOT NEW
"Lapp has been conducting a running battle against the AEC's secret policy which prevents announcements concerning most of the tests and, even at the public detonation May 21, withheld the explosion data necessary to calculate the exact amount of radiation.
"Education about the biological effects of nuclear radiation is an absolute prerequisite if the human race is to survive," Lapp said, adding:
"I think advertisement of the probable effects of war-borne radioactivity might also prove a valuable deterrent to the unlimited use of nuclear weapons."
Collier's was probably the first prominent magazine to vividly portray the tragic dangers of radioactivity. Two years ago it published an article about the dangers of "ATOMIC GARBAGE" by Robert De Roos, which should awaken every human to this dreadful way of exterminating the human race. We herein print copious extracts from his article. This article is the first one, ever to have been published to our knowledge, which discloses the true facts about plutonium, as being the most deadly of the killer metals. Its greater importance as a killer, lies in the fact that it loses only half of its radioactivity in 23,000 years. Its primal effect upon the human body is in its direct attack upon the bone marrow where human blood corpuscles are formed. Together with strontium, these super calciums could cause more defective skeletal births and agonizing deaths than any plague heretofore known to have hurt mankind.
When you read these extracts have this thought in mind; that radioactivity has hardly begun as yet. This fuel is not intended for temporary use, but for permanent use.
Think ahead, therefore, for a hundred years. If conditions are as they now are, after but a few experimental years, what would they be in a hundred years? We believe that there will not be one man on earth in a hundred years even if so few as fifty reactors, such as Hanford and Oak Ridge, are erected.
It cannot be said that the danger to human life is not fully rea4ed, for the cost of the waste storage tanks is 1287,000 each, and the Hanford plant has already purchased 127,000,000 worth of these tanks.
The fallacy of this tank plan is that the tanks themselves will disintegrate in a century or two, or become as radioactive as their contents in twenty years, thus fully releasing these deadly rays for many thousands of years of destruction. Many of these tanks have been thrown into the deep sea. We, of this generation, are quite safe from them, but other generations will pay dearly for what we are doing to them. Is not that a dreadful thought?
The latest idea for waste disposal is to lock it up in glazed bricks. Radioactive metals will destroy bricks as readily as they destroy granite and other rocky formations. It is a slow process but future generations will be the sufferers from it. There is no possible safe way of getting rid of radioactive waste beyond a few years. The deserts of the world offer the only chance. By plowing very deep furrows for hundreds of miles, and distributing all waste and free metals in very small
amounts over thousands of such miles in many deserts, it may be possible to save our atmosphere. Otherwise, we will have no atmosphere in time.
One woman of the middle west, who read the following Collier's article, was heard to say:
"Every pregnant woman of the future will continually fear that her baby may be a defective."
What a horrible thought, especially for women of this generation, to whom such a thought never occurs.
"Far out in the desert wasteland of eastern Washington, at the Atomic Energy Commission's gigantic Hanford plutonium works, radioactive elements surge in vast underground tanks--apent-up sea of useless energy which is a constant worry to the scientists who unwillingly created it. This deadly broth of fission products is the garbage of the atomic age.
And these highly active liquid wastes are only part of the story. Potentially dangerous atomic garbage comes in all forms: liquids, solids, gases and vapors. The ordinary defenses of man are powerless against all of them. Radioactivity is invisible and silent; it cannot be touched or tasted or smelled. And everything a radioactive element comes in contact with becomes contaminated: a wrench used in atomic installations, steel drums, a bit of wastepaper from a laboratory.
Carcasses of experimental animals may contain small amounts of radioactivity; even the laundry water used to wash contaminated garments gets polluted.
The story of radioactive wastes is just being understood by the public. For years it was cloaked in the secrecy which surrounds all dealings with the atom. But the dilemma posed by the wastes has been with us ever since the first self-
sustaining atomic pile was activated under the bleachers at Stagg Field in Chicago in 1942, for when the physicists pulled the switch on the atomic age, they also created something else: the world's first radioactive rubbish--the
inevitable, lethal products of nuclear fission.
Ten years of production, which has seen the world-shaking atom bomb pale before the even more shattering hydrogen bomb, has left the AEC with an accumulation of millions of gallons of liquid radioactive garbage and tons of contaminated solid objects. And there's more everyday.
The problem facing the AEC--and a problem which it confidently asserts is being handled with great efficiency and success--is how to keep these new materials out of the environment--out of the air we breathe, out of our drinking water and food supplies. The garbage must be kept tightly under control because unbelievably small--often invisible--
amounts can contaminate large areas.
What makes the problem so serious is the fact that this radioactive garbage is bulking up at increasing rates--thousands of gallons every day.
And it's only the beginning. The atomic-energy industry, big as it is, is only an infant now, and today's rubbish can be handled by storing it in remote sections of the country. But under the provisions of new Congressional legislation, private manufacturers will be encouraged to develop the commercial uses of fission material. So in the not-too-distant future, disposal of wastes will become a neighborhood matter.
Some of the best engineering brains in the country are grappling with the serious question, but unless they come up with workable solutions, constantly swelling stores of waste may hamper full development of such peacetime atomic projects as generation of electric power, heating of whole communities from central atomic "furnaces," propulsion of ships and planes, and thousands of undreamed-of new ideas.
At Hanford, where the atomic refuse represents the greatest nonmilitary concentration of radioactive elements ever known to man, the scientists rely on CC to dispose of highly active wastes. The radiation level of the hot stuff is fantastically high: the tanks the trash is buried in contain several million times the radioactivity of the world's entire commercial supply of radium.
Just one element sloughed off in making plutonium--strontium 90--is over 60 times as radioactive as radium. How dangerous is that? An engineer of the General Electric Company, which operates Hanford for the AEC, figured out what would happen in the hypothetical event that you threw the element into the Columbia River--which no one would be likely to do. After covering a sheet of paper with computations, he came up with this answer: "It would take over eight hours of the full flow of the Columbia--fifty-three billion gallons--to dilute one gram of pure strontium 90 to the point where the water would be safe enough to drink according to the AEC's permissible limits. Or putting it another way, if you dripped three grams of the element in the Columbia every day, the water of the sixth-largest river in the U. S. would be unfit to drink." (A gram is 1/28 of an ounce.)
In addition to strontium 90, the chain reaction spews out about 40 other radioactive waste elements with half lives ranging from seconds to millions of years. A half life is the time it takes half of the atoms in a radioactive element to become disintegrated.
Storage of the really hot stuff is very expensive. A recent contract for six 1,000,000-gallon tanks was let for $1,724,000. Hanford has $27,000,000 worth of tanks with a storage capacity of 67,000,000 gallons.
No one claims the tanks provide the solution to atomic rubbish disposal. "We are uncertain about the effects of these radioactive wastes," comments General Electric's Dr. Herbert M.Parker, director of the radiological sciences department at Hanford. "We are starting conservatively while trying to get answers which may modify the present program."
David F. Shaw, the AEC manager at Hanford, adds: "Meanwhile we keep building the tanks." At $287,000 each.
Meanwhile, most of the rubbish is stored. The only highly radioactive wastes being thrown away are those now sent out to sea to be dumped in very deep water beyond the continental shelf. A federally sponsored committee hopes this system may provide the ultimate solution to the waste-disposal problem. On the other hand, oceanographers, sanitary engineers, marine biologists and marine geologists are already concerned about what will happen when large amounts of radioactivity are thrown into the oceans.
"The sea has the same topography as the land," says Dr. Abel Wolman, of The Johns Hopkins University, a consultant to the AEC and one of the top sanitary engineers in the United States. "Big as it is, it won't accommodate everything we want to throw into it."
How winds, waves and currents will affect the dispersion or concentration of radioactive materials is under very serious study. Dr. Wolman says:
"One thing that makes me a little reluctant about using the ocean is the memory of the New York garbage mess--when New York dumped its trash far at sea only to have it drift back to the Jersey beaches. And what about international control of dumping at sea?"
At Oak Ridge, Tennessee, in the vast silences of the Appalachian Mountains, stand the tremendous gaseous diffusion plants where U235 is made by the Carbide & Carbon Chemicals Company, a division of Union Carbide & Carbon Corporation.
Oak Ridge, a 60,000-acre site, also contains the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, which produces most of the country's radioactive isotopes for experimental work.
In 1942, as part of the Manhattan Project, the U.S. government created a top ‘Secret Town’ aka ”The Atomic City’ now called Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The government bought up about 68,000 acres of land and about 1,000 Tennessee families were given two weeks or less to vacate. All the while, other secret towns were created elsewhere in the US as part of the race to create an atomic weapon. These photos are a flashback into World War II and a treasure trove of Oak Ridge period history. Through these pictures we can peer into the past, previously shrouded in secrecy, into the atomic city where the Little Boy bomb was created before the Enola Gay dropped it on Hiroshima. It’s a story that involves Soviet atomic spies, espionage, compartmentalization to guard secrets, and government billboards encouraging secrecy among Oak Ridge workers. (source)
Atoms For Peace Traveling Exhibit in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 1957. But once upon a time, for years, both the atomic research and the facility in Oak Ridge were shrouded in secrecy. The government created this ‘Secret Town’ aka ‘The Atomic City’ as part of the Manhattan Project. In fact, Oak Ridge was the Manhattan District Headquarters. Oak Ridge National Lab, which is now home to ultra-fast and powerful supercomputer Titan, has digitized photo archives, making this photo essay possible. DOE Photo #1 by Ed Westcott
Uncle Sam promoting secrecy on Oak Ridge billboard in December 1943. Wikipedia states, “The Manhattan Project operated under a blanket of tight security, but Soviet atomic spies still penetrated the program. It was also charged with gathering intelligence on the German nuclear energy project. Through Operation Alsos, Manhattan Project personnel served in Europe, sometimes behind enemy lines, where they gathered nuclear materials and documents, and rounded up German scientists.” DOE Photo #2 by Ed Westcott
Left: Capt. O’Sullivan talking about how ‘Atom Splitting releases energy’ in 1944. Right: Little Boy, the bomb secretly produced at Oak Ridge, was untested. But on July 16, 1945, the atomic bomb created in Los Alamos was tested and this was known as the Trinity Test. DOE Photo #4 by Ed Westcott & #5 by Jack W. Aeby / Special Engineering Detachment at Los Alamos laboratory, working under the aegis of the Manhattan Project
Oak Ridge Tennessee 1966: “Your Stake in the Atom a special traveling exhibit of U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, is housed in its own geodesic, exoskeleton structure some 20 feet high and 50 feet in diameter.” By this time, the atomic bomb had been dropped on Japan, WWII was long over and replaced by the Cold War. The Manhattan Project had turned into a new page in history, the nuclear arms race. DOE Photo #3 by Ed Westcott (SOURCE)
HOW OAK RIDGE GETS RID OF ITS REFUSE
Although its waste problem does not compare with Hanford's in volume, Oak Ridge still pours 50,000 gallons of highly active refuse into its underground tanks every week. Another 5,000,000 gallons of less active rubbish also must be disposed of.
Because Oak Ridge is located in a remote region, the disposal of less active wastes is not a minor worry; but getting rid of the highly radioactive rubbish is harder. Teams of scientists, headed by Dr. Z. K. Morgan, director of the health physics division of the National Laboratory, believe they have an answer for final disposal of the dangerous, long-lived refuse at Oak Ridge, if not in all other parts ofthe country.
Two huge pits were bulldozed out of a hillside above White Oak Lake and large amounts of very hot wastes were poured in. The theory was that the radioactive fission products would be trapped by the fine particles of shale underlying the pits; any small amounts of hot stuff that seeped through would be diluted in the waters of the lake.
Test wells were drilled to detect movement of the rubbish through the ground. At the end of two months, only one waste element had penetrated through to one well."
McCalls Magazine for January of 1957, had this front cover headline for a story by PareLorentz, "RADIOACTIVITY IS POISONING YOUR CHILDREN." We quote parts of his story which is indicative of the fear which is felt throughout the world of this threat to the human race:
"It is no secret today that a hydrogen war, no matter who starts it or who is attacked, will mean the destruction of most of the human race. One of our own high-ranking generals has stated publicly that a hydrogen attack by our forces
might take the lives of three or four hundred million people--enemy or ally--"depending on the direction of the winds"!
What is not so well known, but what could be equally disastrous, is a possible slow degeneration of the human race caused by radioactive poisons released during times of peace.
Here is a substance you can neither see, feel, hear, taste nor smell. You may be exposed to it unwittingly; you may inhale it, or absorb it by drinking polluted water or by eating contaminated food. You may not feel any immediate ill effects, yet some materials remain radioactive for years in the body, operating as so many infinitesimal but dangerous X-ray machines.
1.No amount of man-made radiation, external or internal, is "good" for healthy, living things. Any amount of exposure does some harm, however slight.
2. Radiation is cumulative and irreversible. To put it very unscientifically, you have just so much radiation tolerance, and every time you are subjected to X rays or any other kind of man-made radiation, you have drawn against your total allowance. Some people have more tolerance than others, but, ideally, the quantity of total body radiation to which a human being is exposed during his lifetime should not be greater than that to which he is subjected from the sun, stars and planets and radiation arising from the
minerals in the earth's surface.
3. There is no such thing as a peaceful use of atomic energy, if by 'peaceful" you mean "harmless." Even the by products of a peaceful nuclear reactor could be used in one form or another for military purposes. Radiations inside atomic plants are dangerous. Air escaping from the plants can become contaminated. If water is used to shield or to cool the plant, it can become contaminated. The waste materials--the by-products of nuclear fission--are radioactive, some materials remaining highly dangerous for centuries.
4. The more people exposed to radiation, the more damage to generations yet unborn. For years, many groups of scientists in many parts of the world have issued appeals for a cessation of atomic explosions, on the grounds that the fall-out of radioactive materials gradually is poisoning the earth. Because of the cloud of secrecy surrounding the military facts of atomic energy and because some of these scientific groups are politically suspect, many of these appeals have been reported in the daily press as political rather than scientific discussions.
A careful study of the official reports of our own authorities, however, should convince anyone that sooner or later the atomic powers will have to stop releasing poisonous materials in the atmosphere. If they do not stop, and stop completely, they will have achieved mutual annihilation just as surely as though they had engaged in actual, all-out hydrogen warfare.
What is more, even if all bomb tests were stopped tomorrow, it is estimated that the main part of the poisonous materials that already have been released into the upper atmosphere will not have fallen on us until 1970, and there will be a continuation of this noxious rain long after that."
The following is quoted from the Christian Science Monitor--as written by its Science editor, Robert C. Cowen:
"A special study group of leading American natural scientists has concluded that there is no radiation danger to human life from the present rate of atomic weapons tests. This cuts the technical ground from under the repeated demands that such tests be stopped because of the radioactive materials they release into the atmosphere.
But, at the same time, these experts warn that the full worldwide development of peaceful uses for the atom could produce more of a radiation hazard in the form of radioactive wastes than would an all-out atomic war. In fact, this "hot" waste disposal problem is growing so quickly today that their report urges its immediate and urgent consideration at the international level to determine and set up adequate safeguards.
This report by responsible natural scientists should help to bring more balanced thinking than has been evidenced in the past to bear on the vexing question of whether or not the human race is endangering its own future by releasing atomic radiations into its environment.
The report was based on extensive studies by 145 natural scientists conducted under the auspices of the National Academy of Sciences and financed by a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation. The studies were set up specifically to help resolve the worldwide controversy over radiation hazards and to provide some useful data in a field that is beset with ignorance and uncertainties."
The following is from the Washington Daily News, Monday, September 10, 1956, by Gene Shumate:
WE ARE BREATHING ATOM-AGE AIR HERE
(It's Radioactive Most of the Time)
The air over Washington has been radioactive more than 70 per cent of the time since 1951, a Naval Research Laboratory report said today.
In 1953, it said, Washingtonians breathed pre-atomic air for only 60 days.
"We haven't had normal, clean air since before the atomic age--or since we started testing atomic weapons at Yucca Flats, Nev.," Dr. Herbert Friedman of the laboratory's Electron Optics Branch told The News.
Dr. Friedman is one of the authors of the report. It said the Navy has studied the air in a series of areas since 1949--
Chicago, Washington, San Diego, San Francisco, Seattle, Memphis, Puerto Rico, Panama, seven scattered Pacific isles,
North Africa, and Alaska.
Of all of them, the report said, Washington and Chicago were the most radioactive.
DOSAGE IS SMALL
Dr. Friedman said the average dosage present in the air here is only two-tenths of a roentgen--far from being immediately dangerous--"but we're not sure what the accumulative effect on man will be."
It takes about 500 to 600 roentgens to kill a man outright, he said.
"There's a lot we don't know as yet about what effect breathing even slightly radioactive air over extended periods will have on us," Dr. Friedman said. "We do know that certain isotopes up there are bad actors."
The greatest and most powerful expression of fear from the use of radioactivity which has yet been made by anyone among the higher intellectuals, is the following world-broadcast appeal by Dr. Albert Schweitzer Norwegian Nobel Committee, asking that "public opinion demand an end to nuclear tests."
The New York Times, April 24, 1957.
SCHWEITZER URGES WORLD OPINION TO DEMAND END OF NUCLEAR TESTS
Nobel Winner's Plea Broadcast in 50 Lands Says Alternative Is Catastrophe for Mankind
OSLO, Norway, April 23--Dr. Albert Schweitzer has appealed to the world to end nuclear tests.
The appeal of the 82-year-old missionary surgeon, philosopher and musician, addressed to the Norwegian Nobel Prize Committee, was broadcast today in about fifty countries, including most of those in Europe. It was broadcast in Swahili from Nairobi and Japanese stations carried it.
Dr. Schweitzer's message was read in Norwegian by Unnar Jahn, chairman of the Norwegian Nobel Committee, who in 1952 be stowed the Nobel Peace Prize on Dr. Schweitzer. Translations of the text were read in English, German, French and Russian on Norwegian short-wave stations.
The impact of the warning was heightened for Norwegian listeners because the broadcast followed by fifteen minutes a report of a recent radioactive rain over Norway caused by Soviet nuclear explosions
The initiative for the broadcast came from Dr. Schweitzer himself. The Norwegian state radio planned to send a reporter to his hospital in Lambaréné, French Equatorial Africa, where Dr. Schweitzer lives and works, to make a recording of the speech.
Dr. Schweitzer said he was too weak to read the appeal himself. It was, therefore, decided that the message would be read in translation and Dr. Schweitzer expressed the hope that it would reach the whole world.
Dr. Schweitzer said his aim was to awaken public opinion before it was too late. He warned that the human race was heading for a catastrophe if nuclear explosions were continued. This catastrophe must be prevented, he said.
"There can be no question of doing anything else, if only for the reason that we cannot take the responsibility for the consequences it might have for our descendants; they are threatened by the greatest and most terrible danger," Dr. Schweitzer said.
He emphasized that to fail to consider the importance of radioactive elements created by man and their consequences would be a folly "for which humanity would have to pay a terrible price." "We are committing this folly in thoughtlessness," he said.
PUTS IT UP TO PUBLIC
Dr. Schweitzer asked why the United States, the Soviet Union and Britain did not come to agreement to stop the tests. He believed the reason was that there was no public opinion asking for it. Japan, he added, is the only exception.
He accused "official and unofficial sources" of evading the problem when they assured that the increase in radioactivity of the air did not exceed an amount the human body could tolerate without harm.
"Even if we are not directly affected by the radioactive material in the air we are indirectly affected through that which has fallen down, is falling down and will fall down," he declared.
He also stressed that not only was the health of the present population threatened by internal radiation but also that of future generations.
"The fact is that the cells of the reproductive organs are particularly vulnerable to radiation,"he said.
Dr. Schweitzer concluded his warning by appealing to public opinion in all nations to demand an agreement to stop the tests. "The end of further experiments with atomic bombs would be like the early sunrays of hope which suffering humanity is longing for," he said.
SCHWEITZER'S APPEAL TO END NUCLEAR TESTS
OSLO, Norway, April 23 (Reuters)--Following is the translation of excerpts from a letter issued by Dr. Albert Schweitzer through the Norwegian Nobel Committee, asking that public opinion demand an end to nuclear tests:
Since March 1, 1954, hydrogen bombs have been tested, by the Americans at the Pacific island of Bikini in the Marshall Group and by the Russians in Siberia.
After the explosion of a hydrogen bomb . . . something remained in the air, namely an incalculable number of radioactive particles emitting radioactive rays. This was also the case with the uranium bombs which were dropped on Nagasaki and Hiroshima and those with which subsequent tests were made. However, because these bombs had smaller size and less effect compared with the hydrogen bombs, one hardly paid any attention to this fact.
Since radioactive rays of sufficient amount and strength have harmful effects on the human body, one started discussing if the radiation resulting from the explosions that had already taken place represented a danger which would increase with new explosions.
RACE HELD ENDANGERED
In the course of the three and a half years that have passed since then representatives of the physical and medical sciences have been studying the problem. The material collected, although far from complete, allows us to draw the conclusion that radiation resulting from the explosions which have already taken place, represents a danger to the human race, a danger not to be underrated, and that further explosions of atomic bombs will increase this danger to an alarming extent.
I raise my voice, together with those of others who have lately felt it their duty to act, in speaking and writing, as warners of the danger. My age and the sympathy that I have gained for myself through advocating the idea of reverence for life, permit me to hope that my appeal may contribute to the preparing of the way for the insight so urgently needed.
There are two kinds of atom bombs, uranium bombs and hydrogen bombs. To these two bombs has recently been added the cobalt bomb, a .kind of super-atom bomb. The effect of this bomb is estimated to be many times stronger than that of hydrogen bombs having been made till now.
The explosion of an atom bomb creates an inconceivably large number of exceedingly small particles of radioactive elements.
PARTICLES HAVE LONG LIFE
Of these elements, some exist for hours, some for weeks, or months, or years, or millions of years, undergoing continuous decay. They float in the higher strata of air as clouds of radioactive dust. The heavy particles fall down first. The lighter ones will stay in the air for a longer time or come down with the rain and the snow. How long it will take before everything carried up in the air by the explosions which have taken place till now has disappeared, no one can say with any certainty. According to some estimates, this will be the case not earlier than thirty or forty years from now.
What we can state with certainty, however, is that the radioactive clouds will constantly be carried by the winds around the globe and that some of the dust, by its own weight, or by being brought down by rain, snow, mist and dew, little by little, will fall down on the hard surface of the earth, into the rivers and into the oceans.
Particularly dangerous are the elements combining long life with a relatively strong efficiency radiation. Among them strontium-90 takes the first place. It is present in very large amounts in the radioactive dust. Cobalt-60 must also be mentioned as particularly dangerous.
WATER MADE RADIOACTIVE
The radioactivity in the air, increased through these elements, will not harm us from the outside, not being strong enough to penetrate the skin. But the danger which has to be stressed above all the others is the one which arises from our drinking radioactive water and our eating radioactive food as a consequence of the increased radioactivity in the air.
Following the explosions on Bikini and Siberia rain falling over Japan was, from time to time, been so radioactive that the water from it cannot be drunk. And not only there: reports of radioactive rainfall are coming from all parts of the world where analyses have recently been made. In several places, the water has proved to be so radioactive that it was unfit for drinking.
Wherever radioactive rainwater is found, the soil is also radioactive--and in a higher degree. The soil is more radioactive not only by the downpour, but also from radioactive dust falling on it. And with the soil the vegetation will also have become radioactive.
The radioactive elements deposited in the soil pass into the plants where they are stored. This is of importance, for as a result of this process it may be the case that we are threatened by a considerable amount of radioactive elements.
The radioactive elements in grass, when eaten by animals whose meat is used for food, will be absorbed and stored in our bodies.
What this storing of radioactive material implies is clearly demonstrated by the observations made when, at one occasion, the radioactivity of the Columbia River in North America was analyzed. The radioactivity was caused by the atomic plants at Hanford, which produce atomic energy for industrial purposes, and which empty their waste water into the river.
FINDS PROBLEM EVADED
The radioactivity of the river water was insignificant. But the radioactivity of the river plankton was 2,000 times higher, that of the ducks eating the plankton 40,000 times higher, that of the fish 150,000 times higher. In young swallows fed on insects caught by their parents in the river, the radioactivity was 500,000 times higher and in the egg yolks of water birds more than 1,000,000 times higher.
From official and unofficial sources we have been assured, time and time again, that the increase in radioactivity of the air does not exceed the amount which the human body can tolerate without any harmful effects. This is just evading the problem.
Even if not directly affected by the radioactive material in the air, we are indirectly affected through that which has fallen down, is falling down, and will fall down. We are absorbing this through radioactive drinking water and through animal and vegetable foodstuffs, to the same extent as radioactive elements are stored in the vegetation of the region in which we live. Unfortunately for us, nature hoards what is falling down from the air.
None of the radioactivity of the air, brought into existence by the exploding of atom bombs is so unimportant that it may not, in the long run, become a danger to us through increasing the amount of radioactivity stored in our bodies.
What are the diseases caused by internal radiation? The same diseases that are known to be caused by external radiation.
They are mainly serious blood diseases. If the cells in the bone marrow are damaged by radiation they will produce too few or abnormal, degenerating blood corpuscles. Both cases lead to blood diseases and, most often, to death. These were the diseases that killed the victims of X-rays and radium rays.
It was one of these diseases that attacked the Japanese fishermen who were surprised in their vessel by radioactive ashes falling down 240 miles from Bikini after the explosion of an hydrogen bomb. With one exception, they were all saved, being strong and relatively mildly affected, through continuous blood transfusions.
DAMAGE TO DESCENDANTS
In the cases cited, the radiation came from the outside. It is unfortunately very probable that internal radiation affecting the bone marrow and lasting for years will have the same effect, particularly since the radiation goes from the bone tissue to the bone marrow.
Not our own health only is threatened by internal radiation, but also that of our descendants. The fact is that the cells of the reproductive organs are particularly vulnerable to radiation. To the profound damage of these cells corresponds a profound damage to our descendants.
To find out how the existing radioactive radiation has affected posterity, comparative studies have been made between the descendants of doctors who have been using X-ray apparatus for years and those of doctors who have not. Among the descendants of radiologists, a percentage of still births of 1.403 was found, while the percentage among the non-
radiologists was 1.222.
In the first group, 6.01 per cent of the children had congenital defects, while only 4.82 percent in the second.
It must be remembered that even the weakest of internal radiation can have harmful effects on our descendants.
The total effect of the damage done to descendants of ancestors who have been exposed to radioactive rays will not, in accordance with the laws of genetics, be apparent in the generations coming immediately after us. The full effects will appear only 100 or 200 years later.
We are forced to regard every increase in the existing danger through further creation of radioactive elements by atom bomb explosions as a catastrophe for the human race, a catastrophe that must be prevented under every circumstance.
There can be no question of doing anything else, if only for the reason that we cannot take the responsibility for the consequences it might have for our descendants.
They are threatened by the greatest and most terrible danger.
That radioactive elements created by us are found in nature is an astounding event in the history of the earth. And of the human race. To fail to consider its importance and its consequences would be a folly for which humanity would
have to pay a terrible price. When public opinion has been created in the countries concerned and among all nations, an opinion informed of the dangers involved in going on with the tests and led by the reason which this information imposes, then the statesmen may reach an agreement to stop the experiments.
A public opinion of this kind stands in no need of plebiscites or of forming of committees to express itself. It works through just being there.
The end of further experiments with atom bombs would be like the early sun-rays of hope which suffering humanity is longing for.
New York Times, April 21st. 1957.
EUROPE'S NUCLEAR FEAR
An Analysis of Changed Sentiment Toward Danger of Atomic Warfare
PARIS, April 20--Europe is growing alarmed about nuclear bombs. The mood today has markedly changed from that of the late decade, when the United States monopoly or predominance in nuclear power was widely regarded as assuring peace and the security of this Continent.
Nuclear weapons are no longer considered a beneficent invention. At the very moment when the United States officially promised nuclear arms to its European allies, eighteen West German physicists joined in declaring they opposed the use of such arms by their country and would do nothing to further nuclear armament. They said current tactical nuclear weapons were as destructive as the original atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima and that their acquisition by West Germany might increase its danger.
Europeans are becoming convinced that nuclear weapons are a menace even if there never is a nuclear war. A committee of the Atomic Scientists Association in Britain has reported that as a result of the hydrogen bombs exploded so far one person in 50,000 is likely to get cancer in the next few decades from the strontium entering his bones. This is an unproved estimate but represents a scientific judgment based on the assumption that the likelihood of cancer is
proportionate to the radioactivity in the bones.
Pending more conclusive evidence and fuller agreement among experts, many Europeans favor suspension of the bomb tests that produce radioactive "fall-out" of greater or lesser malignancy. British statesmen find it more difficult to defend their nuclear bomb tests, which are only beginning.
Soviet bomb tests have led to disturbing atmospheric results in Japan. After measuring the radioactive fall-out this week, Japanese scientists warned of the danger and opinion grew in favor of a ban on all nuclear tests by all nations. An official Japanese protest to Moscow brought the reply that the Soviet Union was willing to suspend the tests if the Western powers agreed.
Thus a new effort was made, in keeping with years of Soviet propaganda, to put the blame on the West.
Western scientists were the first to develop the atomic bomb. A Western power, the United States, was the first to use it in war. The Western alliance, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, has based its strategy on the assumption it will use nuclear weapons to meet an aggression. This decision was reasserted on Thursday by Field Marshal Viscount Montgomery, Deputy Commander in Chief of the Atlantic forces in Europe.
Thus the Western powers are faced with a moral and strategic dilemma that troubles the consciences of many in Europe.
If the West foregoes use of nuclear weapons it will be hopelessly inferior on land to the Soviet Union in Europe and to Communist China in Asia. Both these powers have enormous armies that the West cannot match. The West is not even trying to match them but, as the recent British defense decision showed, is reducing armies in favor of nuclear weapons.
THE CONTAMINATION PROBLEM
But if the Western powers adhere to their policy of basing their defense on nuclear weapons in the hope of thus preventing war, they will risk playing into the hands of Soviet propaganda and causing the vast uncommitted Middle East and Far East to believe the West is responsible for a nuclear arms race.
At the same time the Western governments probably will face growing criticism from their own peoples, who fear not only a nuclear war but even the periodic nuclear bomb tests that contaminate the atmosphere that people breathe and the plants and animals they eat.
Western leaders have sought to limit armaments, including nuclear armaments, but have been unable to find any system of inspection to insure enforcement of any agreement. But it is urged in Europe that no such system is needed to drop bomb tests, since all such tests by the Soviet Union are immediately detected and announced in Washington.
Much concern was felt throughout the country last July (1956) by the sensational testimony given by Lieut. General James A. Gavin before the senate subcommittee investigating air power. Lieut. General Gavin was asked by Senator James F. Duff, of Pennsylvania, what in his opinion, would be the effect of hydrogen bombs dropped on Russia.
Gavin replied that deaths would run into several hundred millions, and, depending on which way the wind blew, would extend well into the Japanese, and perhaps the Philippine Islands areas or well back up into Western Europe.
That testimony brought forth this reply from Senator Mike Mansfield, of Montana: "The horrible conclusion given by Lieut. General Gavin should make us realize that in this difficult era, with the world's scientists running riot, we are faced with an uneasy peace based on the idea of mutual terror.
"It would be my sincere hope that the administrations of the world will take into the most serious and deliberate consideration the dreadful reality of Lieut. General Gavin's reply and explore ways and means through which the peoples of the world can be protected from terrible devastations over which they have no control."
These reports from scientific sources speak fluently regarding the danger to every human being if radioactivity is used. After reading them do you feel assured that you and your children are safe from it? Are you willing that it shall be tried out, knowing as you do, that the human race would be the guinea pig for the most dangerous experiment ever tried by man, and his last one, if he is wrong?
In reading these statements you probably noticed that the small experimental plant at Arco, Idaho, blew up. It could not even be approached for six months afterwards. Accidents happen to a big plant as well as a small one. Does it make you feel comfortable to think that a plant like the Hanford one, or the one to be built near New York, or Detroit, might blow up?
When you think of the world concern and care given to protect people from the two pounds of radium, which was all the world had twenty years ago, does it make you feel comfortable to know that 8,000 tons of much more deadly uranium salts are produced each year from a present stock pile of 600,000 tons of uranium ore? Also, do you feel that it is quite safe to continue multiplying the effects you have read about for a hundred, two hundred, or three hundred years, which we would have to do if radioactivity is to be the next world fuel? Do you realize that thegovernment is spending $2,000,000,000 a year in atomic experiments, and private industry is spending an equal amount, or more, for a dangerous and costly fuel when it could quite easily have a perfectly safe and inexpensive fuel in abundance for not more than $100,000 and a little knowledge of the true nature of electricity?
Before making your own decision whether or no you would vote in favor of radioactivity, read once more what Dr. Ralph Lapp said about the atom bomb tests distribution of strontium in the atmosphere.
He said: "That at the present rate of H. bomb tests, if continued and probably accelerated, by 1962 there would be enough radioactive strontium committed to the stratosphere to produce a 100% maximum permissible amount in every person on the planet."
Do read his report with great mental concentration. No other report gives much concern to what he calls "hold up." Again we say that our primary danger is in that stratosphere "hold up," and not in the "fall out." Dr. Lapp estimates that this "hold up" will fall at about 10°,70 a year. If this is true the human race could not survive another ten years of bomb tests such as the United States and Russia are conducting.
We are not in full agreement with Dr. Lapp concerning the 10°,70 fall to earth, for the potential of that "hold up" is lower than the potential of a pressure ten miles up, and it is slowly expanding to still lower potential. The already too heavy "hold up" will blanket the atmosphere layer and eat into it slowly, but irrevocably and thus thin our life giving and life protecting blue envelope. If Dr. Lapp is right, the human race would already be doomed.
Again we urge everyone to obey the advice given by Dr. Lapp, which we quote from his report as follows:
"Education about the biological effects of nuclear radiation is an absolute prerequisite if the human race is to survive."